≡ Menu

I am publishing here the second chapter of my Master’s Thesis — Pasyon, Awit, Legend — in serial form here to promote a broader, popular discussion of the significance of Pamitinan, Tapusi and the Carpio legend in Philippine history.

Citations from this online material should refer to Joseph Scalice, “Pasyon, Awit, Legend: Reynaldo Ileto’s Pasyon and Revolution revisited, a critique,” Master’s Thesis, South and Southeast Asian Studies, UC Berkeley, December 2009.

Tapuzi / Tapusi.

Tapuzi / Tapusi. Detail from Gironiere 1853.


  • Introduction
    • My goal is to promote a wider popular discussion on Mount Pamitinan and the place known as “Tapusi” — two separate locations — and their significance in late nineteenth-century Philippine history.
  • I. Reconstructing perception using the Carpio legend
    • The Carpio legend was a dynamic, evolving legend in the nineteenth century Philippines, with multiple variants, each of which preserved specific geographical reference to San Mateo.
  • II. Legend as Performance
    • To understand the significance of the Carpio legend we must seek the effect of the legend’s performance in its historical social context.
  • III. Pamitinan and Tapusi
    • Pamitinan and Tapusi were separate locations. Pamitinan was on the spur of the Sierra Madre massif; Tapusi was in the Limutan River valley.
  • IV. Gironiere, Dumas, history and fantasy
    • A crucial source for our investigation is the French plantation owner from Jalajala in the first half of the nineteenth century, Paul P. de la Gironiere, but we must first examine his credibility.
  • V. Gironiere and ‘Tapuzi’
    • Gironiere, corroborated by other mid-19th century sources, provides crucial details on the location and nature of Tapusi, which was at considerable distance from San Mateo and Pamitinan.
  • VI.Tourist Pilgrimages
    • European and American tourists were regularly traveling to the cave of San Mateo in the late nineteenth century.
  • VII. Connecting Pamitinan and Tapusi: Remontado Migration
    • Historical and linguistic data reveals that the wide-ranging migrations of remontados connected Pamitinan with Tapusi.
  • VIII. Tulisanes: San Mateo and Banditry
    • San Mateo was associated with more than this history of remontado migration, however; it was deeply tied to the history of social banditry.
  • IX. Conflating Pamitinan and Tapusi: Elite Error
    • The separate locations of Pamitinan and Tapusi were conflated by the elite, who did not know the difference.
  • X. San Mateo: Central to Bonifacio’s Military Strategy
    • Contrary to the falsifications of Ronquillo, which were uncritically repeated by Ileto, San Mateo figured prominently in Bonifacio’s military strategy.
  • Conclusion
    • Conclusion to Pamitinan and Tapusi